Smoky Quartz is a grey and translucent variety of quartz. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. Like other quartz gems, it is a silicon dioxide crystal. It was not commonly used in the ancient times, but it has recently become a popular gemstone used for jewelry.
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide. Rutile has among the highest refractive indices at visible wavelengths of any known crystal, and also exhibits a particularly large birefringence and high dispersion. Small rutile needles present in gems are responsible for an optical phenomenon known as asterism. Asteriated gems are known as "star" gems. Star sapphires, star rubies, and other "star" gems are highly sought after and are generally more valuable than their normal counterparts.