Glass Bead have been dated back to at least the Roman times. They are usually categorized by the method used to manipulate the glass - wound beads, drawn beads, and molded beads. There are composites, such as millefiori beads, where cross-sections of a drawn glass cane are applied to a wound glass core. A very minor industry in blown glass beads also existed in 19th-century Venice and France.
Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral. Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite, goethite, and calcite. Except for its vibrant green color, the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently.