Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. The abnormal development of resin in living trees (succinosis) can result in the formation of amber. Inclusions of other substances can cause amber to have an unexpected color. Pyrites may give a bluish color. Bony amber owes its cloudy opacity to numerous tiny bubbles inside the resin.
Resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance," which are typically convertible into polymers. Such viscous substances can be plant-derived or synthetic in origin. They are often mixtures of organic compounds. It is durable and transparent, and starts as a liquid form. After casting, it becomes solid and resilient. Special resin molds with smooth surfaces are created to give it a glossy finish.