Jade is an ornamental rock. The term jade is applied to two different metamorphic rocks that are composed of different silicate minerals: nephrite and jadeite. Nephrite and jadeite were used from prehistoric periods for hardstone carving. Jadeite has about the same hardness as quartz. Nephrite is slightly softer, but is tougher (more resistant to breakage) than jadeite.
Black coating uses either ruthenium or TIN cobalt black to give a piece of jewelry a light black or completely black appearance. It is very durable and resistant to scratches. Black plating gives the jewelry piece a sense of masculinity and high-tech.