Vacuum / Ion Plating:
Iron is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Pure iron is relatively soft, but is unobtainable by smelting. The material is significantly hardened and strengthened by impurities, in particular carbon, from the smelting process. A certain proportion of carbon (between 0.002% and 2.1%) produces steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron.
Vacuum/Ion Plating is more durable and wear-resistant than traditional plating methods. Additionally, its great advantage is environmental consciousness as it avoids chemical solution during the process and it’s irritation-free for the skin. Vacuum/Ion Plating is an advanced technique normally in the watch, electronic and space industries. The object is placed in a vacuum chamber, which is pumped down to the desired vacuum pressure. The chamber is then heated to the target temperature to evaporate the material, which is sprayed onto the object, producing a thin layer of coating.